Translator: Visar Hadri Reviewer: Helena Bedalli I want to start by showing you a strategy and the only thing I ask of you is this: to change your attitude for two minutes. But before I start, I ask you make an assessment of your body. So how many of you gather on your own? Maybe bend over, cross your legs. Keep your hands like that. Sometimes we open them too much. (Laughter) I look at you. (Laughter) I want you to focus on what you are doing now. We'll be back to that in a moment, and I hope you master this technique no matter how little because it can significantly change their lives, So we are fascinated by body language, and we are particularly interested in the body language of others. You know, we're interested in … – (Laughter) — a strange conversation or a smile a contemptuous look or a strange squint, or maybe just a handshake. Speaker: Here's where they get to number 10. The lucky policeman has the opportunity to shake hands with the American presidency Here is the Prime Minister – No.
(Laughter) (Applause) (Laughter) (Applause) So giving or not giving a hand, can make us talk about weeks and weeks and weeks. Even the BBC and the New York Times. So obviously when we think of nonverbal behavior, or body language – which we as scientists call nonverbal – it's language, it makes us think about communication. When we think about communication, we think about conversations. What is your body language communicating to me? What am I communicating to you? There are several reasons to look at things from this perspective. Social scientists have spent a lot of time looking at the effects of our body language, or that of other people, as the basis for creating judgments. And we really judge based on body language. And these judgments can predict valuable life results like who we hire or hire, or invite to a meeting. Example Nalini Ambady, researcher at Tuft University, shows when people watch 30-second clips silently of real interactions between doctor and patient, their judgment on the doctor's courtesy, predicts whether that doctor will be sued or not. So it doesn't matter that much with whether or not he was a skilled physician, but do we like that person and how did he interact? Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov in Princeton says judgments on politicians' faces in just one second predict 70% racing results for the US Senate, and even, talk about the virtual network characters used in online negotiations make it possible for you to get more value from that negotiation.
If you misuse them, it's not a good idea. Or not? So when we think of nonverbal, we think of how we judge others, how others judge us, and what the conclusions are. We tend to forget, too, the other audience which is influenced by our nonverbal, and that is the self. We are also influenced by our nonverbal, our thoughts, feelings, and physiology. What nonverbal am I talking about? I am a social psychologist. Study prejudices, and teach in a competitive business school, so it was known that I would be interested in dynamic power. I especially became interested in nonverbal expressions of power and domination. And what are the nonverbal expressions of power and domination? Well, here they are. In the animal kingdom, it represents expansion. So to make yourself bigger, you extend your hands, it takes up more space, so in principle you open up.
The essence is to open up. And this is true throughout the animal kingdom. This doesn't just happen to animals. People do the same. (Laughter) So people do this when they have almost constant power, and also when they feel powerful at some point. And that's especially interesting because it really shows us how universal and old are these expressions of power. This expression, known as pride, studied by Jessica Tracy. It shows that people who are born with normal vision and those who are born blind do so when they win a physical race.
When they cross the finish line and have won, although they have not seen such an expression They do that. So hands up and chin also rises. What about when we are powerless? We do the opposite. We narrow down. We wrap ourselves up. We make ourselves smaller. We don’t want to clash with the person next to us. So again, animals and humans do the same thing. Here's what happens when high power and low power meet.
So what do we do when it comes to power is that we complement the nonverbal communication of others. If someone behaves more powerfully towards us, we tend to shrink. We don’t become like them. We do the opposite of them. Thus, I observe a classroom behavior, and what do I notice? I note that MBA students expose all nonverbal power. We have people who look like "Alphas" cartoons walking into the room, they go right in the middle of the room before class starts, they really want to own space. When they sit down, they somehow open up. They raise their hands like that. There are other people who are collapsing when they entered the classroom. When they enter, something is noticed. Notice on their faces, and their bodies, and they sit in chairs, and narrow, and they do so when they raise their hand.
From this I notice some things. First, and it’s no surprise. This is likely to be related to gender. So women are more likely to do this than men. Women constantly feel less powerful than men, so this is not surprising. But something else I noticed is that this seems to have something to do with the level as well of student participation, and how they participated. And that is very important in an MBA class because participation is counted as half of the grade. Thus, business schools have had difficulty with gender differences We have equally qualified men and women and we have these differences in grades, and this in part seems to be due to the difference in participation.
And I started thinking, these people who come and participate here. Can we make people pretend and would this result in greater participation? So, my co-worker Dana Carney, who is in Berkeley, and I wanted to know, can we pretend until we succeed? For example, can we do this for a while? and really have a change in behavior to look more powerful? So we know our nonverbal guides other people on how to think and feel for us. But our question was. does our nonverbal guide us in how we feel and think about ourselves? There is some evidence that this is true.
So, for example, we smile when we feel happy, but also, when we are forced to smile holding a pen in your mouth like that makes us feel happy. So this is influenced by two directions. Power, too, is influenced by two directions. Thus, when you feel powerful usually do this, but it is possible, since you pretend to be powerful you are likely to really feel like that. So the second question really was, since the mind changes the body, is it true that the body changes the mind? And when I say mind, in the case of power, what am i talking about I'm talking about thoughts and feelings and their psychology, which in my case, are hormones. I look at hormones.
So what do the minds of the powerful and the powerless look like? Powerful people are usually, not surprisingly, safer and more confident, more optimistic. They believe they will win even in gambling. They also tend to think abstract things. So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks. There are many differences between powerful and powerless people. There are also psychological differences in the two main hormones; testosterone which is the dominant hormone, and cortisol, which is the stress hormone. We find that high-power alpha males in the primate hierarchy have high testosterone and low cortisol levels, and effective and powerful leaders also have the same hormonal levels. What does this mean? When we think of power, we only think about testosterone, because that was about dominance. But realistically, power is about how we react to stress. Would you like a powerful leader who is dominant with high testosterone level but stressed? Certainly not, right? You want a person who is powerful, safe and dominant, but not too stressed, a person who takes things in stride.
So we know in primate hierarchies, if a leader is needed, if an individual suddenly takes on the role of leader, within a few days, that individual's testosterone rises significantly and its cortisol drops significantly. Thus, we have evidence that the body builds mind, at least at face level, and also this change of roles shapes the mind. So what happens is that you change roles, what happens if you do this at a minimal level, as a small manipulation, or a small inversion? “For two minutes,” you say, “I want to stay that way, and that will make you feel more powerful. " That's what we did.
We decided to get people into the lab and do an experiment, and these people did, for two minutes, positions of the powerful or positions of the powerless, and I will show you these five positions, even though they only made two. Here's where one is. Some others. This is known as "Wonder Woman" in the media. Here are some more. So you can be standing or sitting. And here are the low-power positions. So you get stuck in yourself. This is an example. When you touch your neck, you are actually protecting yourself. So here's what happens. They come, and are divided into two groups, for two minutes we say "You have to do this or that" They don’t look at the poses in the picture.
We do not want to impose the concept of power on them. We want them to feel powerful. So in two minutes they do. We then ask, "How powerful do you feel?" and then give them a chance to play godfather, and we take the saliva sample. This is the whole experiment. And that's what we found. Risk tolerance, which is in the godfather game, we found that in the pose of high power, 86 percent of you will play gambling.
When you have a low power pose, only 60 percent, and that’s a pretty big difference. Here's what we found in testosterone. From the base where they come from, people in power experience an increase of about 20 percent, and low-power people experience a 10% reduction. So two minutes, and you have these changes. Here's what happens to cortisol. People in high power experience a 25% reduction, and people with low power experience an increase of 15%. Thus, two minutes lead to these hormonal changes that configure your brain to be categorical, confident and comfortable, or reacting to stress and feeling closed. And we’ve all had that feeling, haven’t we? Joverbali shows how we feel about ourselves, so it’s not just the others, but ourselves as well. Also, our body changes our mind. But the next question is, can the authoritative pose for a few minutes really change your life in meaningful ways? It's this small task, it's only a few minutes. When can you apply this? Questions to which we have certainly paid attention. We think it should be used in evaluative situations, as in situations of social threats.
Where are you valued by friends? For teens it’s the lunch table. For some people it's talking at a school meeting, it can be a presentation or a lecture like this or a job interview. We decided that where people find themselves more is the job interview. We published these findings, and the media began to pay close attention to it, and they say, okay, that needs to be done when you go to a job interview, right? (Laughter) You know, we were horrified, and we said, Oh no, no, that's not what we thought.
For many reasons, no, don’t do that. I repeat, this is not when you talk to others. This is done when you talk to yourself. What do you do before the job interview? You do that. You are sitting. Look at your Iphone– or Android, without wanting to exclude anyone. You look at your notes, you bend over, make yourself small, when in fact what you should be doing is probably this, as in the bathroom. Or not? Find two minutes. So that's what we want to test. Good? So, we bring people to the lab, and they make positions of power or vice versa, and we put them in a very stressful job interview. It lasts 5 minutes. They are being recorded. They are also being tried, and judges have been trained not to react, so they look like that. Imagine if this person was interviewing you? So for 5 minutes, nothing, and that’s worse than being interrupted. People hate that. Marianne LaFrance has studied this. So this nails the cortisol.
So, this is an inverter that we put them in, because we wanted to see what happens. Then we put four coders to watch the recordings. They do not know our hypotheses. They know nothing. They don't know who posed in which pose, and they end up watching the recordings and say, "We want to hire these people." all those who have posed in the pose of high power.
"We do not want to employ these people. We also value these people more positively. " But what motivates them? It is not the content of speech. It is the presence they bring to the speech. Because we evaluate them based on several factors regarding competence, such as structuring in speech? How good is it? Their qualifications? No effect on these things. Here's what influences. These things. People point out their true selves. They bring themselves. They bring their own ideas, but like themselves, without any additional surplus. So it directs or helps the effect. So when I tell people about it, that our body changes our mind, and our mind our behavior, I brought the result, they say, "It looks fake," Or not? And I said, do it as long as you can.
It's not me. I don’t want to go out there and feel like a cheater. I don’t want to feel like a cheater. I don’t want to go there just to realize I don’t belong there. And that really connected me, because I want to tell you a little story about being a cheater myself and the feeling that I do not belong to this country. When I was 19, I had a major car accident, I was shot by the car, and rolled over several times.
I was thrown out of the car. And I woke up in a rehabilitation area for head injuries, and I was retired from college, and I learned that my IQ had dropped by two standard deviations which was traumatic. I knew my IQ because I was identified with being smart. and I was called talented as a child. I tried to go back to college. I was told, “You’re not going to finish college. There are other things for you to do, but it will not work for you. " I really had a hard time, I have to say, to take your identity, which to me was being wise, to take this from you, there is nothing that makes you more powerless. So I felt powerless.
I worked and worked, and I was lucky, and I worked, and I was lucky, and I worked. Eventually, I graduated from college. It took me 4 years more than my colleagues, and I persuaded someone, my counselor angel Susan Fiske, take me, and I went to Princeton, and I felt like, I shouldn’t be in this place. I am a cheater. The night before my speech, and the annual speech at Priceton lasts 20 minutes in front of 20 people. This is all. I was afraid I would be discovered one day and I called him and said, "I'm giving up." She told me, “You’re not going to give up, because I bet on you, and you will stay. You will stay, and here is what you will do. You will become false. You will make any speech that is required.
You will do and do and do, even if you are scared and just stumble and experiences a bad experience, until you have that moment you say, “Oh god, I’m doing it. Like, I’m done that. I'm really doing that. " And that’s what I did. five years in master studies, a few years, and you know, I’m in Northwestern I settled on Harvard, I'm on Harvard, for a long time I thought "I don't have to be here." And, at the end of his first year at Harvard, a student who had never spoken in class, never, that I had told him "You have to talk" came to my office.
I really didn’t know him. She came defeated and said, "I don't have to be here." And that was a moment for me. Because two things happened. The first was that I understood, oh god, I don't feel that way anymore, I don't feel that way anymore because she feels and I understand that feeling, The class needs it Like, she can cheat until it’s done. And I said, "Yes you are! You're supposed to be here!" And tomorrow you will be fake, you will make yourself strong, and you know– (Applause) And you will go to class, and you'll make the best comment ever.
" And you know? She gave the best comment ever, and the people turned as if, nor did I notice him sitting there. (Laughter) She returns after a few months, and I realized she wasn't fake, but it really worked out. So she had changed. That's why I want to tell you, don't be fake until you succeed. Fake until you become what you wanted to be. Fake until you master it. The last thing I want to tell you is this. Small changes lead to big changes. This is two minutes. Two minutes, two minutes, two minutes. So to be evaluated in a stressful situation, for two minutes do this, in the elevator, in the bathroom, on the table, behind the door.
This is what you want to do. Make your brain cope with the situation Raise testosterone. Reduce cortisol. Do not let the situation become regrettable Leave the situation feeling like, I know I will tell him who I am. So I ask you to pose and I ask you to share this science, because it is simple. I am not expressing selfishness with this. (Laughter) Bring it on. Share with people, because the people who can use it the most are people without access to technology without status and power. Give it a go. They can do it privately All it takes is the body, privacy and two minutes, and that could change their lives. Thank you. (Applause) .